From Einstein to the Magic Flute – Strategy Letter 45


Europe and France are lagging behind:

  • Eight European companies among the 50 companies deemed as the most innovative in the world
  • 2.1% of French GDP dedicated to R&D in 2006, far behind Japan (3.15%)


Since the end of the 19th century, innovation has evolved greatly:

  • From 1876 to the 50s, innovation was structured around R&D: it is a solo innovation
  • From the 60s to the 80s, R&D and marketing started to get closer: it is duo innovation
  • During the 90s, innovation gathered lots of actors: it is an opera innovation
  • Today, the business external ecosystem becomes involved in the management of R&D and innovation: it is innovative linkages

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