At the core of most public services organisations are large and complex business applications and platforms. Line of business systems manage and enable the fulfilment and processing of front-line services to citizens and businesses. Back-office enterprise systems manage and control functions for financial, procurement, HR and payroll management, often using a shared services model. Modernisation of these applications requires a clear strategy and access to well developed capabilities for the selection, design, implementation, integration and management of multiple technologies. And a continuous focus on innovation and how new technology such as GenAI and best practices from other jurisdictions can be incorporated.