Public service organisations operate in a dynamic and ever-changing societal and economic environment. They are faced with the constant challenge of balancing the provision of ongoing services with planning and delivering change driven by citizen, business and regulatory needs. Services such as taxation, social welfare, healthcare, public safety and environment management are mission critical in ensuring a well-functioning economy and wellbeing in society. Business and IT change and modernisation programmes must be designed and managed in a way where they can deliver value in months rather than years, and while the parameters of the change drivers are still valid. And public funds must be allocated and managed to ensure transparency and the achievement of tangible outcomes.